A study on Cyber Physical Devices (CPD) was published in a series of papers by IKT.NRW (German).
Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) interact with the real world. Commodity flows are controlled autonomously, machines for production adapt to changing requirements by itself, in energy grids, intelligent technologies lead the power to the place where it is currently needed.
The interfaces, which make these interactions possible, are called “Cyber Physical Devices” (CPD). They can be sensors, which collect data from its environment, and actors, which trigger further actions. But also smartphones, data glasses, cars, and even full production sites are playing an increasing role when they are becoming part of the CPS – connected by a communication infrastructure. … Interested? You can get the full study here (PDF, german).
Authors of the study are Bernd Kleinjohann, Lisa Kleinjohann, and Gregor Engels (all C-LAB)